在上篇文章《》中,我们介绍了MDL引入的背景,及基本概念,从“道”的层面知道了什么是MDL。下面就从“术”的层面看看如何定位MDL的相关问题。

在MySQL 5.7中,针对MDL,引入了一张新表performance_schema.metadata_locks,该表可对外展示MDL的相关信息,包括其作用对象,类型及持有等待情况。

但是相关instrument并没有开启(MySQL 8.0是默认开启的),其可通过如下两种方式开启,

临时生效

修改performance_schema.setup_instrume nts表,但实例重启后,又会恢复为默认值。

UPDATE performance_schema.setup_instruments SET ENABLED = 'YES', TIMED = 'YES'

WHERE NAME = 'wait/lock/metadata/sql/mdl';

永久生效

在配置文件中设置

performance-schema-instrument='wait/lock/metadata/sql/mdl=ON'

下面结合一个简单的Demo,来看看在MySQL 5.7中如何定位DDL操作的阻塞问题。

session1> begin;

Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

session1> delete from slowtech.t1 where id=2;

Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

session1> select * from slowtech.t1;

+------+------+

| id   | name |

+------+------+

|    1 | a    |

+------+------+

1 row in set (0.00 sec)

session1> update slowtech.t1 set name='c' where id=1;

Query OK, 1 row affected (0.00 sec)

Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0

session2> alter table slowtech.t1 add c1 int; ##被阻塞

session3> show processlist;

+----+------+-----------+------+---------+------+---------------------------------+------------------------------------+

| Id | User | Host      | db   | Command | Time | State                           | Info                               |

+----+------+-----------+------+---------+------+---------------------------------+------------------------------------+

|  2 | root | localhost | NULL | Sleep   |   51 |                                 | NULL                               |

|  3 | root | localhost | NULL | Query   |    0 | starting                        | show processlist                   |

|  4 | root | localhost | NULL | Query   |    9 | Waiting for table metadata lock | alter table slowtech.t1 add c1 int |

+----+------+-----------+------+---------+------+---------------------------------+------------------------------------+

3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

session3> select object_type,object_schema,object_name,lock_type,lock_duration,lock_status,owner_thread_id from performance_schema.metadata_locks;

+-------------+--------------------+----------------+---------------------+---------------+-------------+-----------------+

| object_type | object_schema      | object_name    | lock_type           | lock_duration | lock_status | owner_thread_id |

+-------------+--------------------+----------------+---------------------+---------------+-------------+-----------------+

| TABLE       | slowtech           | t1             | SHARED_WRITE        | TRANSACTION   | GRANTED     |              27 |

| GLOBAL      | NULL               | NULL           | INTENTION_EXCLUSIVE | STATEMENT     | GRANTED     |              29 |

| SCHEMA      | slowtech           | NULL           | INTENTION_EXCLUSIVE | TRANSACTION   | GRANTED     |              29 |

| TABLE       | slowtech           | t1             | SHARED_UPGRADABLE   | TRANSACTION   | GRANTED     |              29 |

| TABLE       | slowtech           | t1             | EXCLUSIVE           | TRANSACTION   | PENDING     |              29 |

| TABLE       | performance_schema | metadata_locks | SHARED_READ         | TRANSACTION   | GRANTED     |              28 |

+-------------+--------------------+----------------+---------------------+---------------+-------------+-----------------+

6 rows in set (0.00 sec)

提示,类似代码可左右滑动

这里,重点关注lock_status,"PENDING"代表线程在等待MDL,而"GRANTED"则代表线程持有MDL。

结合owner_thread_id,可以可到,是29号线程在等待27号线程的MDL,此时,可kill掉52号线程。

但需要注意的是,owner_thread_id给出的只是线程ID,并不是show processlist中的ID。如果要查找线程对应的processlist id,需查询performance_schema.threads表。

session3> select * from performance_schema.threads where thread_id in (27,29)\G

*************************** 1. row ***************************

THREAD_ID: 27

NAME: thread/sql/one_connection

TYPE: FOREGROUND

PROCESSLIST_ID: 2

PROCESSLIST_USER: root

PROCESSLIST_HOST: localhost

PROCESSLIST_DB: NULL

PROCESSLIST_COMMAND: Sleep

PROCESSLIST_TIME: 214

PROCESSLIST_STATE: NULL

PROCESSLIST_INFO: NULL

PARENT_THREAD_ID: 1

INSTRUMENTED: YES

HISTORY: YES

CONNECTION_TYPE: Socket

THREAD_OS_ID: 9800

*************************** 2. row ***************************

THREAD_ID: 29

NAME: thread/sql/one_connection

TYPE: FOREGROUND

PROCESSLIST_ID: 4

PROCESSLIST_USER: root

PROCESSLIST_HOST: localhost

PROCESSLIST_DB: NULL

PROCESSLIST_COMMAND: Query

PROCESSLIST_TIME: 172

PROCESSLIST_STATE: Waiting for table metadata lock

PROCESSLIST_INFO: alter table slowtech.t1 add c1 int

PARENT_THREAD_ID: 1

INSTRUMENTED: YES

HISTORY: YES

CONNECTION_TYPE: Socket

THREAD_OS_ID: 9907

2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

将这两张表结合,借鉴sys.innodb_lock _waits的输出,实际上我们也可以直观地呈现MDL的等待关系。

a.OBJECT_SCHEMA AS locked_schema,

a.OBJECT_NAME AS locked_table,

"Metadata Lock" AS locked_type,

c.PROCESSLIST_ID AS waiting_processlist_id,

c.PROCESSLIST_TIME AS waiting_age,

c.PROCESSLIST_INFO AS waiting_query,

c.PROCESSLIST_STATE AS waiting_state,

d.PROCESSLIST_ID AS blocking_processlist_id,

d.PROCESSLIST_TIME AS blocking_age,

d.PROCESSLIST_INFO AS blocking_query,

concat('KILL ', d.PROCESSLIST_ID) AS sql_kill_blocking_connection

performance_schema.metadata_locks a

JOIN performance_schema.metadata_locks b ON a.OBJECT_SCHEMA = b.OBJECT_SCHEMA

AND a.OBJECT_NAME = b.OBJECT_NAME

AND a.lock_status = 'PENDING'

AND b.lock_status = 'GRANTED'

AND a.OWNER_THREAD_ID <> b.OWNER_THREAD_ID

AND a.lock_type = 'EXCLUSIVE'

JOIN performance_schema.threads c ON a.OWNER_THREAD_ID = c.THREAD_ID

JOIN performance_schema.threads d ON b.OWNER_THREAD_ID = d.THREAD_ID\G

*************************** 1. row ***************************

locked_schema: slowtech

locked_table: t1

locked_type: Metadata Lock

waiting_processlist_id: 4

waiting_age: 259

waiting_query: alter table slowtech.t1 add c1 int

waiting_state: Waiting for table metadata lock

blocking_processlist_id: 2

blocking_age: 301

blocking_query: NULL

sql_kill_blocking_connection: KILL 2

1 row in set (0.00 sec)

输出一目了然,DDL操作如果要获得MDL,执行kill 2即可。

实际上,MySQL 5.7在sys库中也集成了类似功能,同样的场景,其输出如下,

mysql> select * from sys.schema_table_lock_waits\G

*************************** 1. row ***************************

object_schema: slowtech

object_name: t1

waiting_thread_id: 29

waiting_pid: 4

waiting_account: root@localhost

waiting_lock_type: EXCLUSIVE

waiting_lock_duration: TRANSACTION

waiting_query: alter table slowtech.t1 add c1 int

waiting_query_secs: 446

waiting_query_rows_affected: 0

waiting_query_rows_examined: 0

blocking_thread_id: 27

blocking_pid: 2

blocking_account: root@localhost

blocking_lock_type: SHARED_READ

blocking_lock_duration: TRANSACTION

sql_kill_blocking_query: KILL QUERY 2

sql_kill_blocking_connection: KILL 2

*************************** 2. row ***************************

object_schema: slowtech

object_name: t1

waiting_thread_id: 29

waiting_pid: 4

waiting_account: root@localhost

waiting_lock_type: EXCLUSIVE

waiting_lock_duration: TRANSACTION

waiting_query: alter table slowtech.t1 add c1 int

waiting_query_secs: 446

waiting_query_rows_affected: 0

waiting_query_rows_examined: 0

blocking_thread_id: 29

blocking_pid: 4

blocking_account: root@localhost

blocking_lock_type: SHARED_UPGRADABLE

blocking_lock_duration: TRANSACTION

sql_kill_blocking_query: KILL QUERY 4

sql_kill_blocking_connection: KILL 4

2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

具体分析下官方的输出,

只有一个alter table操作,却产生了两条记录,而且两条记录的kill对象竟然还不一样,对表结构不熟悉及不仔细看记录内容的话,难免会kill错对象。

不仅如此,如果有N个查询被DDL操作堵塞,则会产生N*2条记录。在阻塞操作较多的情况下,这N*2条记录完全是个噪音。

而之前的SQL,无论有多少操作被阻塞,一个alter table操作,就只会输出一条记录。

但上面这个SQL也有遗憾,其blocking_query为NULL,而在会话1中,其明明已经执行了三个SQL。

这个与performance_schema.threads(类似于show processlist)有关,其只会输出当前正在运行的SQL,对于已经执行过的,实际上是没办法看到。

但在线上,kill是一个需要谨慎的操作,毕竟你很难知道kill的是不是业务关键操作?又或者,是个批量update操作?那么,有没有办法抓到该事务之前的操作呢?

答案,有。

即Performance Schema中记录Statement Event(操作事件)的表,具体包括events_statements_current,events_statements_history,events_statements_history_long,prepared_statements_instances。

常用的是前面三个。

三者的表结构完全一致,其中,events_statements_history又包含了events_statements_current的操作,所以我们这里会使用events_statements_history。

终极SQL如下,

locked_schema,

locked_table,

locked_type,

waiting_processlist_id,

waiting_age,

waiting_query,

waiting_state,

blocking_processlist_id,

blocking_age,

substring_index(sql_text,"transaction_begin;" ,-1) AS blocking_query,

sql_kill_blocking_connection

b.OWNER_THREAD_ID AS granted_thread_id,

a.OBJECT_SCHEMA AS locked_schema,

a.OBJECT_NAME AS locked_table,

"Metadata Lock" AS locked_type,

c.PROCESSLIST_ID AS waiting_processlist_id,

c.PROCESSLIST_TIME AS waiting_age,

c.PROCESSLIST_INFO AS waiting_query,

c.PROCESSLIST_STATE AS waiting_state,

d.PROCESSLIST_ID AS blocking_processlist_id,

d.PROCESSLIST_TIME AS blocking_age,

d.PROCESSLIST_INFO AS blocking_query,

concat('KILL ', d.PROCESSLIST_ID) AS sql_kill_blocking_connection

performance_schema.metadata_locks a

JOIN performance_schema.metadata_locks b ON a.OBJECT_SCHEMA = b.OBJECT_SCHEMA

AND a.OBJECT_NAME = b.OBJECT_NAME

AND a.lock_status = 'PENDING'

AND b.lock_status = 'GRANTED'

AND a.OWNER_THREAD_ID <> b.OWNER_THREAD_ID

AND a.lock_type = 'EXCLUSIVE'

JOIN performance_schema.threads c ON a.OWNER_THREAD_ID = c.THREAD_ID

JOIN performance_schema.threads d ON b.OWNER_THREAD_ID = d.THREAD_ID

group_concat(    CASE WHEN EVENT_NAME = 'statement/sql/begin' THEN "transaction_begin" ELSE sql_text END ORDER BY event_id SEPARATOR ";" ) AS sql_text

performance_schema.events_statements_history

GROUP BY thread_id

t1.granted_thread_id = t2.thread_id \G

*************************** 1. row ***************************

locked_schema: slowtech

locked_table: t1

locked_type: Metadata Lock

waiting_processlist_id: 4

waiting_age: 294

waiting_query: alter table slowtech.t1 add c1 int

waiting_state: Waiting for table metadata lock

blocking_processlist_id: 2

blocking_age: 336

blocking_query: delete from slowtech.t1 where id=2;select * from slowtech.t1;update slowtech.t1 set name='c' where id=1

sql_kill_blocking_connection: KILL 2

1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

从上面的输出可以看到,blocking_query中包含了会话1中当前事务的所有操作,按执行的先后顺序输出。

需要注意的是,默认情况下,events_statements_history只会保留每个线程最近的10个操作,如果事务中进行的操作较多,实际上也是没办法抓全的。